3D comparison of average faces in subjects with oral clefts



Bugaighis I, Tiddeman B, Mattick CR, Hobson R.


Eur J Orthod. 2014 Aug;36(4):365-72. doi: 10.1093/ejo/cjs060. Epub 2012 Nov 20.


This prospective cross-sectional, case-controlled morphometric study assessed three dimensional (3D) facial morphological differences between average faces of 103 children aged 8-12 years; 40 with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP), 23 with unilateral cleft lip and alveolus (UCLA), 19 with bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP), 21 with isolated cleft palate (ICP), and 80 gender and age-matched controls. 3D stereophotogrammetric facial scans were recorded for each participant at rest. Thirty-nine landmarks were digitized for each scan, and x-, y-, z-coordinates for each landmark were extracted. A 3D photorealistic average face was constructed for each participating group and subjective and objective comparisons were carried out between each cleft and control average faces. Marked differences were observed between all groups. The most severely affected were groups where the lip and palate were affected and repaired (UCLP and UCLA). The group with midsagittal palatal deformity and repair (ICP) was the most similar to the control group. The results revealed that 3D shape analysis allows morphometric discrimination between subjects with craniofacial anomalies and the control group, and underlines the potential value of statistical shape analysis in assessing the outcomes of cleft lip and palate surgery, and orthodontic treatment. CI – © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

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Link/DOI: 10.1093/ejo/cjs060