A rater agreement study on measurements in cross-sectional CBCT images exploring the association between alveolar bone morphology and craniofacial height



Klinge A, Al-Okshi A, Becktor J, Lindh C.


Oral Radiol. 2021 Oct;37(4):573-584. doi: 10.1007/s11282-020-00493-4. Epub 2020 Dec 3.


The efficacy and safety of dry and wet formulations of three nonsynthetic compounds, oxalic acid (OA), thymol (T), and oregano oil (OO), for the control of Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman infestations in honey bee (Apis mellifera Linnaeus) colonies were determined. The treatments were OA in dust, OA diluted in glycerin solvent embedded in a towel, T in dust, T in glycerin solvent and towel, OO in dry microcapsules, OO in glycerin solvent and towel, and the control. The treatments were applied weekly for 4 wk during the fall season. The rates of acaricide efficacy, weekly mite fall, bee mortality, colony survivorship, and strength, were determined for each of the treatments. All formulations, with the exemption of OO microcapsules, were effective at controlling infestations of V. destructor. The most effective formulations were T dust (96.6%), T glycerin (92.4%), and OA glycerin (79%). More than 85% of the mites were killed during the first 2 wk of treatment with T formulations, compared to less than 30% for the OA glycerin formulation. The lowest efficacy rate was for OO microcapsules (21.3%), and the only treatment that significantly increased bee mortality was OA glycerin. The rates of winter colony survival and honey bee populations were related to the varroacidal efficacy of the formulations. The implications of these findings are discussed. CI – © The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

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Link/DOI: 10.1007/s11282-020-00493-4