A Review on the Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Humans and Animals Reported in Malaysia from 2008-2018



Nasiru Wana M, Mohd Moklas MA, Watanabe M, Nordin N, Zasmy Unyah N, Alhassan Abdullahi S, Ahmad Issa Alapid A, Mustapha T, Basir R, Abd Majid R.


Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Jul 3;17(13):4809. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17134809.


Toxoplasmosis is a disease caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). Human toxoplasmosis seroprevalence in Malaysia has increased since it was first reported in 1973 as shown in previous reviews of 1991 and 2007. However, over a decade since the last review, comprehensive data on toxoplasmosis in Malaysia is lacking. This work aimed at reviewing articles on toxoplasmosis research in Malaysia in order to identify the research gaps, create public awareness, and efforts made so far and proffer management options on the disease. The present review examines the available published research articles from 2008 to 2018 related to toxoplasmosis research conducted in Malaysia. The articles reviewed were retrieved from nine credible databases such as Web of Science, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, PubMed, Scopus, Springer, Wiley online library, Ovid, and Cochrane using the keywords; Malaysia, toxoplasmosis, Toxoplasma gondii, toxoplasma encephalitis, seroprevalence, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients, pregnant women, genotype strain, anti-toxoplasma antibodies, felines, and vaccine. The data highlighted seropositive cases from healthy community members in Pangkor Island (59.7%) and among migrant workers (57.4%) at alarming rates, as well as 42.5% in pregnant women. Data on animal seroprevalence were limited and there was no information on cats as the definitive host. Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from HIV patients; pregnant women, and domestic cats is lacking. This present review on toxoplasmosis is beneficial to researchers, health workers, animal health professionals, and policymakers. Therefore, attention is required to educate and enlighten health workers and the general public about the risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in Malaysia.

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Link/DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17134809