A Triple Co-Delivery Liposomal Carrier That Enhances Apoptosis via an Intrinsic Pathway in Melanoma Cells



Filipczak N, Jaromin A, Piwoni A, Mahmud M, Sarisozen C, Torchilin V, Gubernator J.


Cancers (Basel). 2019 Dec 9;11(12):1982. doi: 10.3390/cancers11121982.


The effectiveness of existing anti-cancer therapies is based mainly on the stimulation of apoptosis of cancer cells. Most of the existing therapies are somewhat toxic to normal cells. Therefore, the quest for nontoxic, cancer-specific therapies remains. We have demonstrated the ability of liposomes containing anacardic acid, mitoxantrone and ammonium ascorbate to induce the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis via reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by the killing of cancer cells in monolayer culture and shown its specificity towards melanoma cells. Liposomes were prepared by a lipid hydration, freeze-and-thaw (FAT) procedure and extrusion through polycarbonate filters, a remote loading method was used for dug encapsulation. Following characterization, hemolytic activity, cytotoxicity and apoptosis inducing effects of loaded nanoparticles were investigated. To identify the anticancer activity mechanism of these liposomes, ROS level and caspase 9 activity were measured by fluorescence and by chemiluminescence respectively. We have demonstrated that the developed liposomal formulations produced a high ROS level, enhanced apoptosis and cell death in melanoma cells, but not in normal cells. The proposed mechanism of the cytotoxic action of these liposomes involved specific generation of free radicals by the iron ions mechanism.

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Link/DOI: 10.3390/cancers11121982