Hashem A, Fletcher AJ, Younis H, Mauof H, Abou-Okeil A.
Int J Biol Macromol. 2020 Dec 1;164:3193-3203. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.08.159. Epub 2020 Aug 24.
Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) has been utilized as an adsorbent material for the removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution after treatment with 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) at elevated temperature to obtain MMCC. The resulting adsorbent was characterized for point of zero point charge (pHZPC), estimation of carboxyl content, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scan electron microscopy (SEM), and textural properties, including surface area, and subsequently utilized for the removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution. The adsorption process was probed by investigating the effect of adsorbent dose, pH of solution, temperature, agitation time, and Pb(II) ion concentration. The results showed successful functionalization of MCC using BTCA, significantly improved the binding properties of the adsorbent towards Pb(II) ions. Isothermal adsorption data was analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin models, evaluated via nonlinear regression analysis. The maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 1155 mg/g (at pH 5 and 30 °C) from Langmuir theory, and appears independent of surface area. The Freundlich model was found to provide the best fit and the constant n was determined to be 2.69, indicating that adsorption of Pb(II) ions onto MMCC is favorable. Kinetic modelling showed good agreement for the pseudo-second order kinetic model, supporting the theory that chemisorption is involved in the adsorption process, which is promoted by a high density of active sites. Thermodynamic analysis showed that the adsorption of Pb(II) ions onto MMCC was endothermic and nonspontaneous; hence, MMCC offers an effective method of Pb(II) ion removal from aqueous solutions, with potential for water remediation processes. CI – Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.