Central nervous system complications of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection



Faraj EL-Mabruk

Neurology Unit, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Garyounis, Benghazi, Libya

Libyan J Infect Dis. Vol. 1, No.1. Jan-2007:11-25


Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may affect the central nervous system (CNS) directly, producing distinct neurological syndromes such as HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment (HNCI), vacuolar myelopathy, or indirectly, by causing immunodeficiency with a resultant susceptibility to opportunistic infections, neoplasms and vascular diseases. The focus of this review is to evaluate information and data on epidemiologic characteristics, clinical manifestations, pathogenetic mechanisms, investigations and therapy for CNS complications of HIV/AIDS and to outline a practical approach to assess and manage these disorders. This review does not include the peripheral neuropathies, other less common conditions associated with HIV infection, or the toxic effects of specific antiretroviral drugs.

Keywords: HIV/AIDS, Dementia, Myelopathy, Neoplasms, Opportunistic infections