Competition between [2 + 1]- and [4 + 1]-cycloaddition mechanisms in reactions of conjugated nitroalkenes with dichlorocarbene in the light of a DFT computational study



Alnajjar RA, Jasiński R.


J Mol Model. 2019 May 11;25(6):157. doi: 10.1007/s00894-019-4006-7.


The competition between [2 + 1] and [4 + 1] channels regarding reactions of conjugated nitroalkenes with dichlorocarbene was explored based on B3LYP/6-31G(d) calculations. It was found that, in the case of cycloadditions involving parent nitroethene and its 1-substituted analogs, the [2 + 1] scheme should be treated as possible only from the kinetic process point of view. On the other hand, in similar reactions involving 2-substituted nitroethenes, both channels considered may compete. Additionally, mechanistic aspects of all cycloadditions were analyzed. It was found that the considered [2 + 1]-cycloadditions proceed via a non-polar mechanism with a biradicaloidal transition state (TS), whereas [4 + 1]-cycloadditions proceed via a polar mechanism with a zwitterionic TS.

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Link/DOI: 10.1007/s00894-019-4006-7