Comprehensive pollution monitoring of the Egyptian Red Sea coast by using the environmental indicators



Nour HES, Nouh ES.


Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2020 Aug;27(23):28813-28828. doi: 10.1007/s11356-020-09079-3. Epub 2020 May 16.


The environmental pollution indicators and multivariate statistical analysis were used to evaluate the potential ecological risk and the contamination of Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cu, Cd, and Co in surface sediments of the Egyptian Red Sea coast. The results revealed that the studied area suffers from high contamination of certain metals such as the Hurghada area (Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni, and Cu), Quseir City area (Cd, Co, Pb, and Ni), and Safaga and Marsa Alam areas (Cd and Pb). Enrichment factor and principal components analysis reported that the pollution sources of Fe, Mn, and Co are related to natural weathering process while Cu, Zn, Ni, and Pb are related to anthropogenic sources as landfill, plastic rubbish, fishing boats, phosphate operations, and tourist activities. Moreover, Co and Cd metals can come from both of natural and anthropogenic sources. The average concentrations of Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, and Co in sediments of the Egyptian Red Sea coast are higher than those in the coasts of the Red Sea (Saudi Arabia), Mediterranean Sea (Egypt and Libya), Bengal bay (India), and the Caspian Sea (Russia). However, the studied metal content is lower than the sediment quality guideline values except for Cd.

Keywords: .

Link/DOI: 10.1007/s11356-020-09079-3