Demographical and clinical aspects of sports-related maxillofacial and skull base fractures in hospitalized patients.

Original article


Elhammali N 1,2, Bremerich A 1, Rustemeyer J 1.

1-Department of Cranio- and Maxillofacial Surgery, Center Hospital, Bremen, Germany 2-Altahadi University, Sirte, Libya

Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2010 Sep;39(9):857-62


As many as 30% of all maxillofacial fractures (MFFs) and skull base fractures (SBFs) are reported to be sports-related. Participation in sporting activities has grown worldwide and the number of cases of sports-related injuries has also increased. The aim of this study was to evaluate the data of 3596 patients hospitalized by MFF or SBF over a 6-year period; 147 (4%) of these cases were sports-related (mean age 29.7±12.8 years). The highest incidence was found in patients aged 20-29 years (35%), and the fractures resulted mostly from ball sports (74%), especially soccer (59%) and handball (8%). The injuries involved different areas, with a significant prevalence of the midface complex (67%) compared with the mandible region (29%) and the skull base (4%). The commonest diagnoses associated with MFF and SBF were brain concussion (19%), laceration of the skin and soft tissue (16%), and dental injury (8%). Surgery was required for 88% of midface fractures. In cases of mandible fractures 52% were supplied with osteosynthesis. This study identified the significant number of severe sports-related injuries that occur each year, suggesting that changes of rules and safety standards are needed for the prevention of such injuries.

Keywords: maxillofacial fracture, skull base fracture, sports-related injury, concomitant injury, midface fracture, mandible fracture