Efficacy of chemoprophylaxis and immunoprophylaxis in leprosy prevention: a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials



Tawfik GM, Biala M, Yousef YM, Tiwari R, Dobs M, Lotfy CI, Farrag DA, Hue AT, Yotsu RR, Huy NT.


Clin Microbiol Infect. 2021 Jul 28:S1198-743X(21)00424-9. doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2021.07.032. Online ahead of print.


ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Caralluma europaea (Guss) N.E.Br. (Apocynaceae), is a medicinal plant distributed in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Jordan, Spain, and Italy. The different parts of the plant are used traditionally to treat various diseases such as diabetes mellitus, flu, caught, kidney stones, cysts, respiratory infection, cancer, digestives disorders, urogenital infections, metabolic disorders, and cardiovascular problems. AIM OF THE REVIEW: In this review, previous reports on C. europaea concerning its morphological description, geographical distribution, ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological properties, and toxicological studies were critically summarized. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review of the literature on C. europaea was performed by searching the scientific databases Science Direct, PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar. RESULTS: In traditional medicine, C. europaea used to treat several illnesses including diabetes, cancer, and kidney stones. Our analysis of the previous reports confirmed the scientific evidence of C. europaea ethnomedicinal uses, especially the antidiabetic activity. However, there was no clear correlation between previous pharmacological reports on C. europaea and its other ethnomedicinal uses in the treatment of kidney stones, flu, caught, metabolic, digestive, cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. The essential oils and extracts of C. europaea exhibited several in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties such as antidiabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-proliferative, antibacterial, antimicrobial, toxicological, and immunomodulatory effects. Phytochemical characterization of C. europaea revealed the presence of several classes of secondary metabolites such as terpenoids, polyphenols, and flavonoids compounds. Finally, the food preservative ability of the extracts and essential oil obtained from C. europaea has been fully discussed. CONCLUSION: Ethnomedicinal surveys indicated the use of C. europaea for the treatment of numerous diseases. Pharmacological reports showed that C. europaea exhibited significant antidiabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-proliferative, antibacterial, antimicrobial, and immunomodulatory effects. Further studies on the phytochemistry of bioactive compounds should be performed by using bioactivity-guided isolation strategy and improve their biological potency as well as scientific exploitation of traditional uses. An in-depth investigation is needed to valid the food preservative properties. CI – Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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Link/DOI: 10.1016/j.cmi.2021.07.032