Epidemiological characterization and geographic distribution of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome infection in North African countries

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Daw MA, Ahmed MO.

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World J Virol. 2021 Mar 25;10(2):69-85. doi: 10.5501/wjv.v10.i2.69.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a major global public health concern. North African countries carry a disproportionate burden of HIV representing one of the highest rates in Africa. AIM: To characterize the epidemiological and spatial trends of HIV infection in this region. METHODS: A systematic review was carried out on all the published data regarding HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in North African countries over ten years (2008-2017) following the PRISMA guidelines. We performed a comprehensive literature search using Medline PubMed, Embase, regional and international databases, and country-level reports with no language restriction. The quality, quantity, and geographic coverage of the data were assessed at both the national and regional levels. We used random-effects methods, spatial variables, and stratified results by demographic factors. Only original data on the prevalence of HIV infection were included and independently evaluated by professional epidemiologists. RESULTS: A total of 721 records were identified but only 41 that met the criteria were included in the meta-analysis. There was considerable variability in the prevalence estimates of HIV within the countries of the region. The overall prevalence of HIV ranged from 0.9% [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.8-1.27] to 3.8% (95%CI 1.17-6.53). The highest prevalence was associated with vulnerable groups and particularly drug abusers and sexually promiscuous individuals. The dense HIV clustering noted varied from one country to another. At least 13 HIV subtypes and recombinant forms were prevalent in the region. Subtype B was the most common variant, followed by CRF02_AG. CONCLUSION: This comprehensive review indicates that HIV infection in North African countries is an increasing threat. Effective national and regional strategies are needed to improve monitoring and control of HIV transmission, with particular emphasis on geographic variability and HIV clustering. CI – ┬ęThe Author(s) 2021. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.

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Link/DOI: 10.5501/wjv.v10.i2.69