Gene Expression Alterations Associated with Oleuropein-Induced Antiproliferative Effects and S-Phase Cell Cycle Arrest in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells



Messeha SS, Zarmouh NO, Asiri A, Soliman KFA.


Nutrients. 2020 Dec 7;12(12):3755. doi: 10.3390/nu12123755.


It is known that the Mediterranean diet is effective in reducing the risk of several chronic diseases, including cancer. A critical component of the Mediterranean diet is olive oil, and the relationship between olive oil consumption and the reduced risk of cancer has been established. Oleuropein (OL) is the most prominent polyphenol component of olive fruits and leaves. This compound has been shown to have potent properties in various types of cancers, including breast cancer. In the present study, the molecular mechanism of OL was examined in two racially different triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines-African American (AA, MDA-MB-468) and Caucasian American (CA, MDA-MB-231). The data obtained showed that OL effectively inhibits cell growth in both cell lines, concomitant with S-phase cell cycle arrest-mediated apoptosis. The results also showed that OL-treated MDA-MB-468 cells were two-fold more sensitive to OL antiproliferative effect than MDA-MB-231 cells were. At lower concentrations, OL modified the expression of many apoptosis-involved genes. OL was more effective in MDA-MB-468, compared to MDA-MB-231 cells, in terms of the number and the fold-change of the altered genes. In MDA-MB-468 cells, OL induced a noticeable transcription activation in fourteen genes, including two members of the caspase family: caspase 1 (CASP1) and caspase 14 (CASP14); two members of the TNF receptor superfamily: Fas-associated via death domain (FADD) and TNF receptor superfamily 21 (TNFRSF21); six other proapoptotic genes: growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible 45 alpha (GADD45A), cytochrome c somatic (CYCS), BCL-2 interacting protein 2 (BNIP2), BCL-2 interacting protein 3 (BNIP3), BH3 interacting domain death agonist (BID), and B-cell lymphoma/leukemia 10 (BCL10); and the CASP8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulator (CFLAR) gene. Moreover, in MDA-MB-468 cells, OL induced a significant upregulation in two antiapoptotic genes: bifunctional apoptosis regulator (BFAR) and B-Raf proto-oncogene (BRAF) and a baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) repeat-containing 3 (BIRC3). On the contrary, in MDA-MB-231 cells, OL showed mixed impacts on gene expression. OL significantly upregulated the mRNA expression of four genes: BIRC3, receptor-interacting serine/threonine kinase 2 (RIPK2), TNF receptor superfamily 10A (TNFRSF10A), and caspase 4 (CASP4). Additionally, another four genes were repressed, including caspase 6 (CASP6), pyrin domain (PYD), and caspase recruitment domain (CARD)-containing (PAYCARD), baculoviral IAP repeat-containing 5 (BIRC5), and the most downregulated TNF receptor superfamily member 11B (TNFRSF11B, 16.34-fold). In conclusion, the data obtained indicate that the two cell lines were markedly different in the anticancer effect and mechanisms of oleuropein’s ability to alter apoptosis-related gene expressions. The results obtained from this study should also guide the potential utilization of oleuropein as an adjunct therapy for TNBC to increase chemotherapy effectiveness and prevent cancer progression.

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Link/DOI: 10.3390/nu12123755