Groundwater quality of north-east Libya.

Original article


Nair GA 2, Bohjuari JA 1, Al-Mariami MA 1, Attia FA 1, El-Toumi FF 1

1-Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Garyounis, Post Box: 9480, Benghazi, Libya. 2-Department of Environmental Sciences, Uniersity of Kerala, Kariavattom, Thiruvananthapuram-695 581, India.

J Environ Biol. 2006 Oct;27(4):695-700.


The quality of groundwater was assessed to their suitability for drinking at six places of north-east Libya viz. El-Marj, Albayda, Shahat, Susa, Ras al-Hilal and Derna, during November, 2003 to March, 2004, by determining their physicochemical parameters (17 parameters) and water quality index (15 parameters). The temperatures of water samples averaged 15.1 degree C, pH values were alkaline and dissolved oxygen values were in safe ranges. Electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids and hardness of water at all places except Susa were within the standard limits. Alkalinity of well water at all six places exceeded, and chlorine and chloride (except Susa) were within the desirable limits set for them. Fluoride and nitrate contaminations of well water were not observed, and only very low values of phosphorus, manganese, chromium, iron and zinc were recorded. Copper in well water was generally high, and at Susa and Ras al-Hilal, it exceeded the desirable limit. Parametric ratios showed that all parameters studied except those of pH, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity and total chlorine originated from sources different from that of hardness. Water quality index (WQI) revealed that well water of Albayda and Shahat were good for drinking and were only slightly polluted, whereas those of El-Marj, Ras al-Hilal and Derna were moderately polluted. However, the well water of Susa was excessively polluted and was unsuitable for drinking. Suitable suggestions were made to improve the quality of groundwater of N.E. Libya.

Keywords: Desirable limit, North-east Libya, Parametric ratio, Physicochemical parameters, Pollution, Water quality index, Well water.