Investigation of Andrographolide Effect on Non-Infected Red Blood Cells Using the (1)H-NMR-Based Metabolomics Approach



Alapid AAI, Abd Majid R, Ibraheem ZO, Mediani A, Ismail IS, Unyah NZ, Alhassan Abdullahi S, Nordin N, Nasiru Wana M, Basir R.


Metabolites. 2021 Jul 28;11(8):486. doi: 10.3390/metabo11080486.


Andrographolide (AG) has been shown to have several medicinal and pharmaceutical effects, such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-diabetic, and anti-malarial activities. Moreover, studies to assess the pharmacological effect of AG on the metabolic changes of uninfected red blood cells (uRBCs) have not yet been investigated. This study aims to evaluate the pharmacological effects of AG compared to chloroquine (CQ) on the metabolic variations of uRBCs in vitro using a proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR)-based metabolomics approach coupled with multivariate data analysis (MVDA). Forty-one metabolites were successfully identified by (1)H-NMR. The results of the unsupervised data analysis principal component analysis (PCA) showed ideal differentiation between AG and CQ. PC1 and PC2 accounted for 71.4% and 17.7% of the explained variation, respectively, with a total variance of 89.10%. Based on S-plot and VIP values, a total of 28 and 32 metabolites were identified as biomarkers in uRBCs-AG and uRBCs-CQ, respectively. In uRBCs treated with AG, ten metabolic pathways were determined to be disturbed, including riboflavin metabolism, d-glutamate and d-glutamine metabolism, phenylalanine metabolism, glutathione metabolism, proline and arginine metabolism, arginine biosynthesis, citrate cycle, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, and pyruvate metabolism as well as alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism. In contrast, in CQ-treated uRBCs, nine affected metabolic pathways were determined, which involved the same metabolic pathways for uRBCs-AG, except for glutathione metabolism. These findings suggest an evident relationship between AG and CQ associated with metabolic changes in intact RBCs after being exposed to the treatment. The metabolomics results could allow useful comprehensive insights into the underlying mechanism of the action of AG and CQ on red blood cells. Consequently, the (1)H-NMR-based metabolomics approach was successfully utilized to identify the pharmacological effects of AG and CQ on the metabolic variations of uRBCs.

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Link/DOI: 10.3390/metabo11080486