Oral Diclofenac Potassium Versus Hyoscine-N-Butyl Bromide in Reducing Pain Perception during Office Hysteroscopy: ARandomized Double-blind Placebo-controlled Trial



Abbas AM, Elzargha AM, Ahmed AGM, Mohamed II, Altraigey A, Abdelbadee AY.


J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2019 May-Jun;26(4):709-716. doi: 10.1016/j.jmig.2018.08.001. Epub 2018 Aug 10.


Eicosapentaenoic acid:docosahexaenoic acid (EPA:DHA) 6:1, an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid formulation, has been shown to induce a sustained formation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase-derived NO, a major vasoprotective factor. This study examined whether chronic intake of EPA:DHA 6:1 prevents hypertension and endothelial dysfunction induced by angiotensin II (Ang II) in rats. Male Wister rats received orally corn oil or EPA:DHA 6:1 (500 mg kg(-1) per day) before chronic infusion of Ang II (0.4 mg kg(-1) per day). Systolic blood pressure was determined by tail cuff sphingomanometry, vascular reactivity using a myograph, oxidative stress using dihydroethidium and protein expression by immunofluorescence and western blot analysis. Ang II-induced hypertension was associated with reduced acetylcholine-induced relaxations of secondary branch mesenteric artery rings affecting the endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization (EDH)- and the NO-mediated relaxations, both of which were improved by the NADPH oxidase inhibitor VAS-2870. The Ang II treatment induced also endothelium-dependent contractile responses (EDCFs), which were abolished by the cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor indomethacin. An increased level of vascular oxidative stress and expression of NADPH oxidase subunits (p47(phox) and p22(phox)), COX-1 and COX-2, endothelial NO synthase and Ang II type 1 receptors were observed in the Ang II group, whereas SK(Ca) and connexin 37 were downregulated. Intake of EPA:DHA 6:1 prevented the Ang II-induced hypertension and endothelial dysfunction by improving both the NO- and EDH-mediated relaxations, and by reducing EDCFs and the expression of target proteins. The present findings indicate that chronic intake of EPA:DHA 6:1 prevented the Ang II-induced hypertension and endothelial dysfunction in rats, most likely by preventing NADPH oxidase- and COX-derived oxidative stress.

Keywords: .

Link/DOI: 10.1016/j.jmig.2018.08.001