Mir NA, Faquih AM, Legnain M.
Asia Oceania J Obstet Gynaecol. 1989 Dec;15(4):351-7.
Over a period of one year, 16,365 consecutively live born neonates were prospectively studied for evidence of birth asphyxia using the requirement of greater than one minute of positive pressure ventilation for identifying infants suffering from birth asphyxia. Asphyxia occurred in 2.8% of all neonates. Multivariate analysis of high risk factors associated with increased risk of asphyxia showed that low birth weight was the most significant predictor of asphyxia: asphyxia occurred in 68% of infants of less than 1,000 g birth weight and decreased to 1.2% in infants of 3-4 kg birth weight. Perinatal risk factors associated with a higher incidence of asphyxia include: postmaturity, birth weight (less than or equal to 2.5 kg) and with the presence of maternal and/or obstetric complications. The impact of asphyxia on neonatal mortality was most pronounced in more mature infants and the mortality was increased 3 fold in infants of less than 34 week gestation and greater than 27 fold for infants greater than 38 week gestation. Of the asphyxiated neonates, intrauterine growth retardation, fetal macrosomia, hypothermia, hyaline membrane disease, seizures, hypoglycemia and hyponatremia were significantly associated with an increased risk of death.
Keywords: Perinatal risk factors in birth asphyxia: relationship of obstetric and neonatal complications to neonatal mortality in 16,365 consecutive live births.