Phylogenetic study of Theileria ovis and Theileria lestoquardi in sheep from Egypt: Molecular evidence and genetic characterization



Al-Hosary AA, ElSify A, Salama AA, Nayel M, Elkhtam A, Elmajdoub LO, Rizk MA, Hawash MM, Al-Wabel MA, Almuzaini AM, Ahmed LSE, Paramasivam A, Mickymaray S, Omar MA.


Vet World. 2021 Mar;14(3):634-639. doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2021.634-639. Epub 2021 Mar 13.


Candesartan cilexetil (CC) is an antihypertensive drug. It has low solubility and faces hepatic first-pass metabolism after oral ingestion. We formulated bioadhesive buccal films and studied the respective drug pharmacokinetics. Different bioadhesive films were prepared (40, 80, 120, 160, 200, and 240 mg CC per film) by using the solvent casting method. The drug concentrations used affect the drug entrapment mechanism, which was reflected in the film physicochemical properties like thickness, weight, drug content, bioadhesion, and drug release. Low drug concentration (F2, 40 mg per film) led to minute drug crystal dispersion while increasing the drug concentration (F7, 240 mg per film) showed drug crystal encapsulation, which affects the drug release. The drug pharmacokinetic from the prepared films was studied compared to the oral form by serial blood sampling via an inserted catheter in the carotid of rats. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography assay was used to measure the plasma concentration of CC in different forms. Compared to other films, the F2 showed the highest maximal concentration (Cmax) and the lowest elimination half-life (t(1/2)). Bioadhesion buccal film of CC has better bioavailability, especially at low concentrations. The ease, robustness, and ruggedness of the preparation suggests the same procedure for drugs like CC.

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Link/DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2021.634-639