Screwworm eradication in the Americas.



Wyss JH.

United States Department of Agriculture, Panama City, Panama.

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2000;916:186-93.


The screwworm fly, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), is a parasite that attacks all warm-blooded animals including humans. This parasite has caused significant losses to the livestock industries of the Americas. Since the screwworm eradication program was initiated in the Southeastern United States in 1957, the eradication program has successfully progressed to its current location in Panama. A variety of technologies and tools have been used in the eradication programs. The cooperative agreement has been a significant tool in the success of the program. In the United States, the State-Federal Cooperative programs provided the mechanism for carrying out screwworm eradication. Once screwworms were eradicated from the United States, the need to expand the program internationally, in order to protect the United States, became evident. A cooperative agreement created the Mexico-United States Commission for the Eradication of Screwworms (Commission). Commission-Guatemala and Commission-Belize Cooperative Agreements were used to eradicate screwworms from these countries. Followup programs in El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama were implemented by cooperative agreements between the United States Department of Agriculture and the individual countries. The positive and negative aspects, as well as the necessary elements of successful cooperative agreements, are discussed.

Keywords: Screw Worm Infection,United States,Mexico,Cochliomyia hominivorax