Susceptibility of Toxoplasma gondii to Ethanolic Extract of Tinospora crispa in Vero Cells



Sharif AA, Unyah NZ, Nordin N, Basir R, Wana MN, Alapid Ahmad A, Mustapha T, Majid RA.


Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2019 Nov 18;2019:2916547. doi: 10.1155/2019/2916547. 2019.


BACKGROUND: Toxoplasmosis remains widely distributed globally and is one of the major neglected parasitic zoonotic infections. The infection is still endemic in most parts of the world due to poor control as well as challenges of the currently used medications which can be overcome by using natural products. This study evaluated the effect of ethanolic extract from the stem of Tinospora crispa (EETC) on host cell invasion and intracellular replication of Toxoplasma gondii. METHOD: The stem powder of T. crispa was soaked in absolute ethanol for 72 hours. The resulting ethanolic extract was screened for the presence of phytochemicals. Vero cells monolayer in 96-well plate was infected with RH strain of T. gondii and treated with concentrations of the EETC, Veratrine alkaloid, and clindamycin ranging from 1.56 to 200 μg/mL. MTT assay was conducted after 24 hours to evaluate the cytotoxicity and antiparasitic activities of the EETC. Four and 24 hours treatment models were adapted to assess the infection index and intracellular proliferation of T. RESULTS: The study revealed that the EETC had no cytotoxic effects on Vero cells with IC(50) = 179 μg/mL, as compared to clindamycin (IC(50) = 116.5 μg/mL) and Veratrine alkaloid (IC(50) = 60.4 μg/mL). The EETC had good anti-toxoplasma activities with IC(50) = 6.31 μg/mL in comparison with clindamycin (IC(50) = 8.33 μg/mL) and Veratrine alkaloid (IC(50) = 14.25 μg/mL). The EETC caused more than 70% and 80% reduction in infection index and intracellular proliferation in both treatment models, respectively. CONCLUSION: This in vitro study showed that the EETC contains promising phytochemicals effective against T. gondii and safe to the host cells. CI – Copyright © 2019 Alhassan Abdullahi Sharif et al.

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Link/DOI: 10.1155/2019/2916547