World malaria situation in 1990.



Bull World Health Organ. 1992;70(6):801-4, 809-13.


In 99 countries or areas of the world, more than 40% of the population is at risk of acquiring malaria. Falciparum malaria does not exist or is not a problem in just 13 countries or areas. 9% of the population live in areas, chiefly in sub-Saharan Africa, where no national malaria program operates and malaria incidence is still high. Global incidence is about 120 million cases (80% in sub-Saharan Africa) and almost 300 million people (90% in sub-Saharan Africa) have the parasite. Reporting of malaria cases of WHO is improving, but is still variable. In north Africa, Libya and Tunisia appear to be free from malaria transmission. Number of cases in Egypt is falling and tend to be in El Faiyum Governorate. 53% of all cases in the Americas are in Brazil (almost 99% in Amazonia), 25% from Andean countries (especially Columbia and Ecuador), and 14% from Central America. Malaria transmission in the Caribbean is limited to Hispaniola. Even though most malaria cases are in Brazil, French Guiana and Guyana have the highest incidence (52 and 40 cases per 1000 people, respectively). Bahrain, Cyprus, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Qatar, and Lebanon are free of endemic malaria. Yet malaria transmission did occur in the Kerak Lowlands of Jordan in 1990, but remedial measures quickly eliminated the focus. Malaria cases still occur in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, the United Arab Emirates, and Syria. India has more than 33% of the malaria cases outside of Africa. Except for the Maldives, the other south Asian countries continue to have malaria transmission. In east Asia and Oceania, the countries which continue to have malaria transmission are Thailand, Indonesia, Viet Nam, some areas of China, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, Solomon Islands, Malaysia, and Philippines. In Turkey, endemic malaria occurs in the southeast (Adana and southeast Anatolia) and at limited other foci. There are also small foci of endemic malaria in Azerbaijan and Tajikistan.

Keywords: World malaria situation in 1990.